您当前浏览器版本过低,请使用IE 10、Firefox 30.0或Chrome 24.0 以上浏览器访问此网站。 关闭

TAB Filtration Significantly Improves Tea Quality and Yield

TAB Filtration Significantly Improves Ready to Drink Tea Quality and Yield

Overview

 

Ready to drink tea, fruit juices and drinks, carbonated soft drinks, and other beverages are subject to spoilage due to the presence of heatresistant, acidophilic bacterial spores (TAB). The thermoacidophilic spores may originate either from exposure to agricultural raw materials such as in fruit juice production, or from contamination in the beverage ingredients, such as sweeteners, juice and tea concentrates, or flavors, essences, and colors from natural extracts. These TAB spores comprise Alicyclobacillus species of several types, including A. acidoterrestris, A. acidocaldarius, A. herbarius, A. acidophilus and others. Their introduction into the right fluid environment for germination and microbial growth results in final beverage quality degradation, due primarily to formation of distinctive off-flavors and odors.

 

Unfortunately, spoilage is not usually obvious because TAB organism growth does not produce gas, and the problem may be unrecognized until consumer complaints are received. The spores are highly resistant to heat treatment, UV radiation, disinfectants, and extreme pH values. Therefore even the application of preservation methods for the beverages, such as pasteurization, is often not sufficient to provide spore-free product.

 

Extensive heat treatment would be necessary to kill these spores, however such treatment may negatively influence product attributes such as flavor, color and nutritional value, and may be cost- and energy-intensive. Alicyclobacillus species, even if non-pathogenic, cause serious economic damage for beverage producers. They are difficult to control once in the processing environment. Specifications for the ingredient vendors may therefore include the requirement for TAB spore-free product. Filtration technology that enables spore removal from the ingredients or from beverages is an ideal solution for this challenge.

 

The Challenge

A beverage manufacturer creates a variety of flavored ready to drink teas. They are a national brand with wide distribution, shipping 5 million liters (1.32 million US gallons) per year to their customers. The manufacturer extracts tea from tea leaves from varying foreign sources. From time to time, they found TAB spores in the tea, which negatively impacted the quality of their end products and resulted in having to discard the affected batches. At a value of US$ 85,000 per batch of finished product, the financial impact was high and a solution was required. The manufacturer’s goal was to find an integritytestable filtration solution that would guarantee Application Bulletin final tea quality and eliminate product losses.

 

The Solution

Pall MEMBRAcart XL II (0.45 micron) membrane filter cartridges and a Palltronic® Compact Star integrity test device were selected to meet the need for TAB spore removal and filter performance monitoring. After hot water steeping of the tea leaves, the extracted tea is clarified with a crossflow microfiltration system, then cooled. Final membrane filtration for removal of the TAB spores follows. The resulting filtrate batch is monitored for quality, and if it passes QA requirements it proceeds to further downstream processing steps including ingredient addition, mixing, pasteurization and filling.

 

The MEMBRAcart XL II filter family of products is used extensively in the beverage industry to provide secure and reliable removal of spoilage microorganisms in a variety of applications. In particular, the 0.45 micron MEMBRAcart XL II option has been validated for removal not only of the model spoilage organism Serratia Marcescens1, but also for TAB spores2. Extensive laboratory studies involving microbial challenge tests show that these filters provide complete retention of TAB spores in different fluids evaluated under defined test conditions. When challenged with A. Acidoterrestris spores at a challenge level between 105 and 106 / cm2 of filtration area, the 0.45 micron polyethersulfone (PES) membrane demonstrates a log reduction value (LRV) of greater than 7 in an acidified fluid model (apple juice) and greater than 7.8 in a high viscous fluid model (corn syrup). It is important to note, that any microbial rated filter should be accompanied with robust validation test work and documentation, as a micron rating in and of itself does not guarantee proper outcomes.

 

In the tea application, the MEMBRAcart XL II filters have performed consistently as expected, yielding zero TAB spore counts in the tea product. This result is confirmed with each tea batch by means of a microbial culture method for presence of TAB vegetative cells and spores3. The filters can be repeatedly steamed in place (SIP) and hot water cleaned, without compromising their robustness or removal performance. At the tea drink producer, the filters are steamed in place prior to first use, with a typical sterilization regime of 121 oC (250 oF) for 20 minutes. After air cooling, filtration begins.

 

At the end of the batch, the filters are flushed with cold water, then re-steamed, cooled and stored within the filter housing under carbon dioxide pressure until next use. With each reuse, the filters are first steamed in place and cooled prior to filtration. Given this protocol, the tea drink producer is able to achieve up to 320 steaming cycles in this application. The filters typically last up to four months, exhibiting a throughput of 140,000 liters (37,000 US gallons) of tea per 30 inch cartridge.

 

The extremely long service life drives down filtration-related operating expenses such as disposable filter spend, water, cleaning chemicals, and labor, and it reduces process downtime. To confirm membrane filter performance, a Palltronic Compact Star filter integrity test instrument is used both prior to and after completion of each filtration batch. The Pall Compact Star is a simple to use, portable device based on the principle of pressure decay integrity test. Results can be printed or downloaded to supplement Quality Assurance records.

 

Quality Monitoring for TAB Contamination

As processes increase in size and complexity, a manufacturer’s risk of exposure to economic loss due to quality insufficiencies increases. Robust and high performing filtration techniques deliver desired outcomes, however an integrated quality assurance program that monitors critical control points in the process is indispensable. Every step of the process, from raw material receiving to final packaging and managing utility fluids (e.g. water) is a potential point of unwanted microbial contamination.

 

Pall’s GeneDisc® RealTime PCR system is a rapid, sensitive, and reliable easy to use detection and identification method for TAB spoilage bacteria, yielding results in a matter of hours. This quick confirmation tool for product quality not only reduces time to shipment, but also provides informative monitoring with which processors can diagnose or prevent problems at the different critical control points of a process.

 

The Benefits

With the MEMBRAcart XL II and Palltronic Compact Star solution, the tea drink producer has achieved its goals, realizing these benefits:

 

  • Brand protection, due to consistent production of TAB spore-free product with validated filtration performance
  • Increased product yield due to total elimination of TAB-contaminated batches
  • Preservation of organoleptic product quality
  • Low filtration operating costs due to long filter service life
  • Monitoring, assurance, and documentation of filter performance with simple integrity test

 

Footnotes

  1. Pall Technical Report FBTPD1006 Rev 2: “Microbial Performance of MEMBRAcart XL II 0.45 Micron Final Filter Cartridges”
  2. Pall Technical Report FBTPD1017: “Removal of TAB Spores by MEMBRAcart XL II 0.45 Micron Filter Cartridges”
  3. Pall offers GeneDisc Real-Time PCR system for TAB spore detection and identification. Please request additional information, including Pall Technical Bulletin FBTBGDTABEN “Novel Molecular Assay and Sample Preparation Method for the Detection of Alicyclobacillus in Fruit Juice Concentrates and Bottling Process Materials.”

 

About Pall Corporation

Pall Corporation is a global filtration, separation and purification leader providing solutions to meet the critical fluid management needs of customers across the broad spectrum of life sciences and industry. We work with our customers to advance health, safety and environmentally responsible technologies. Pall Food and Beverage provides products and services to ensure product quality and maintain process reliability in beverage and food production. Our solutions also assist in consumer protection, waste minimization and reduction of operating costs.

TFF技术增加产量并减少废物流

发酵和熟化后在罐底部收集的剩余酵母中含有高达80%的提取物,这些提取物现在可以回收利用,而不用再丢弃处理。可以从中回收啤酒并以5%的比例重新混合到酿造工艺中,而不会对啤酒质量产生不利影响,从而提高产量并减少需要生产的总啤酒量。这不但减少了二氧化碳排放量和用水量,降低了生产成本,而且最大程度地减少了废物流,降低了处理成本,减少排放回环境中的BOD和COD。
发酵和熟化后在罐底部收集的剩余酵母中含有高达80%的提取物,这些提取物现在可以回收利用,而不用再丢弃处理。可以从中回收啤酒并以5%的比例重新混合到酿造工艺中,而不会对啤酒质量产生不利影响,从而提高产量并减少需要生产的总啤酒量。这不但减少了二氧化碳排放量和用水量,降低了生产成本,而且最大程度地减少了废物流,降低了处理成本,减少排放回环境中的BOD和COD。
了解更多

精酿啤酒厂维护形象,减少损失

虽然由于低pH、乙醇浓度和低氧含量,啤酒对细菌生长有一定的抑制作用,但某些啤酒腐败细菌(包括乳杆菌、片球菌、梳状菌和巨型球菌)可能导致异味、混浊和发酸。这些质量缺陷使得产品不可接受,经常导致大量经济损失和负面品牌形象。在整个生产过程中,必须防止有害微生物污染,才能实现所需的最终啤酒质量。这种污染可能来自于配料成分(包括酵母)、与产品接触的空气和水体以及环境。
虽然由于低pH、乙醇浓度和低氧含量,啤酒对细菌生长有一定的抑制作用,但某些啤酒腐败细菌(包括乳杆菌、片球菌、梳状菌和巨型球菌)可能导致异味、混浊和发酸。这些质量缺陷使得产品不可接受,经常导致大量经济损失和负面品牌形象。在整个生产过程中,必须防止有害微生物污染,才能实现所需的最终啤酒质量。这种污染可能来自于配料成分(包括酵母)、与产品接触的空气和水体以及环境。
了解更多

颇尔Aria™系统挽救濒临关闭的瓶装矿泉水生产厂商

矿泉水是一种有价值的自然资源,在以高纯水和外观鲜亮的瓶装产品形式出现在商店货架上以前,需要先进行良好净化处理。过滤是实现始终如一的卓越产品质量所必需的关键工艺步骤。根据水源质量的不同,过滤相关成本可能是关键所在。一次性过滤器是一种技术可靠的解决方案,但在高品质水源难以获取或变化的情况下,使用这种过滤器在经济上不可持续。
矿泉水是一种有价值的自然资源,在以高纯水和外观鲜亮的瓶装产品形式出现在商店货架上以前,需要先进行良好净化处理。过滤是实现始终如一的卓越产品质量所必需的关键工艺步骤。根据水源质量的不同,过滤相关成本可能是关键所在。一次性过滤器是一种技术可靠的解决方案,但在高品质水源难以获取或变化的情况下,使用这种过滤器在经济上不可持续。
了解更多

微流系统用于干酪盐水净化,10个月即可回收成本

浸入盐水进行盐渍的加工方法广泛用于世界各地的多种奶酪。在反复浸泡期间,奶酪中的脂肪、凝乳颗粒和微生物,加上蛋白质和其他组分的积累,为耐盐性微生物建立起了营养丰富的环境。另外,重复使用的盐水会成为有害微生物的储存池,例如产生气体或颜料的细菌、酵母菌和霉菌或耐盐病原体,这些微生物会交叉污染奶酪和影响产品质量。为了确保日常生产的稳定性,盐水和盐水浸渍操作的良好控制非常关键。除此之外,盐水处理正在受到越来越多的关注。特定领域的高处理成本或体积限制正在推动进一步回收利用盐水的需求,以节省运行成本,尽可能减少工厂的环境足迹。
浸入盐水进行盐渍的加工方法广泛用于世界各地的多种奶酪。在反复浸泡期间,奶酪中的脂肪、凝乳颗粒和微生物,加上蛋白质和其他组分的积累,为耐盐性微生物建立起了营养丰富的环境。另外,重复使用的盐水会成为有害微生物的储存池,例如产生气体或颜料的细菌、酵母菌和霉菌或耐盐病原体,这些微生物会交叉污染奶酪和影响产品质量。为了确保日常生产的稳定性,盐水和盐水浸渍操作的良好控制非常关键。除此之外,盐水处理正在受到越来越多的关注。特定领域的高处理成本或体积限制正在推动进一步回收利用盐水的需求,以节省运行成本,尽可能减少工厂的环境足迹。
了解更多

蒸馏酿酒厂通过SUPRApak™技术在降低运营成本的同时提高产品质量

烈性酒过滤可能是一项难度极高的工作。不但需要清除可能引起浊度的污染物,同时还要保持产品中提高质量的组分。过滤板是实现这一微妙平衡的传统方法。过滤片采用了同时具备优良吸附能力和深度过滤能力的独特材料基质,使其成为降低烈性酒浊度和消除浑浊现象的理想解决方案。过滤片有多个等级,覆盖广泛的应用范围,从浸果酒过滤到去除褐色烈性酒的冷藏浑浊物,再到白色烈性酒活性炭处理。另外,许多板式和板框式过滤器还可灵活地添加或移除过滤片,以适应批量大小、流量或要过滤的特定产品。
烈性酒过滤可能是一项难度极高的工作。不但需要清除可能引起浊度的污染物,同时还要保持产品中提高质量的组分。过滤板是实现这一微妙平衡的传统方法。过滤片采用了同时具备优良吸附能力和深度过滤能力的独特材料基质,使其成为降低烈性酒浊度和消除浑浊现象的理想解决方案。过滤片有多个等级,覆盖广泛的应用范围,从浸果酒过滤到去除褐色烈性酒的冷藏浑浊物,再到白色烈性酒活性炭处理。另外,许多板式和板框式过滤器还可灵活地添加或移除过滤片,以适应批量大小、流量或要过滤的特定产品。
了解更多

用于食品和饲料配料成分生产的发酵液澄清系统

氨基酸、有机酸和维生素等散装食品和饲料配料成分的生产商均采用发酵作为其生产的基础。当今的现代工业生物技术工艺使用精心选择和纯化的微生物细胞培养液来生产更多的各种配料成分并提高生产率。在发酵过程中,微生物在工业生物反应器中繁殖,利用碳水化合物获取能量。微生物在充分控制的通气条件、搅拌速度、温度、pH值等参数条件下生长。。发酵过程可以持续几小时到几天。由微生物产生的代谢终产物是目前使用的许多配料成分的基础。
氨基酸、有机酸和维生素等散装食品和饲料配料成分的生产商均采用发酵作为其生产的基础。当今的现代工业生物技术工艺使用精心选择和纯化的微生物细胞培养液来生产更多的各种配料成分并提高生产率。在发酵过程中,微生物在工业生物反应器中繁殖,利用碳水化合物获取能量。微生物在充分控制的通气条件、搅拌速度、温度、pH值等参数条件下生长。。发酵过程可以持续几小时到几天。由微生物产生的代谢终产物是目前使用的许多配料成分的基础。
了解更多

苹果酒生产商使用OENOFLOW™ HS系统最大限度地提高产量,增加产能

在先进的苹果酒生产过程中,为了能提供外观亮泽且耐储存的产品,过滤操作是关键。根据传统工艺,苹果酒澄清过程基于硅藻土或过滤片的过滤技术。但是,基于更好的经济性、更简便的操作以及更低的废料量,颇尔的Oenoflow™ XL类型的交叉流过滤系统在过去十年中已经被广泛采用。
在先进的苹果酒生产过程中,为了能提供外观亮泽且耐储存的产品,过滤操作是关键。根据传统工艺,苹果酒澄清过程基于硅藻土或过滤片的过滤技术。但是,基于更好的经济性、更简便的操作以及更低的废料量,颇尔的Oenoflow™ XL类型的交叉流过滤系统在过去十年中已经被广泛采用。
了解更多

TAB过滤可显著提高即饮茶水饮料的质量和产量

茶饮料、果汁和饮料、碳酸软饮料和其它饮料都会因出现耐热嗜酸菌孢子(TAB)而导致腐败。嗜热孢子可能来自于接触果汁生产过程中的农业原材料或天然提取物中的甜味剂、果汁和茶浓缩液或加味料、香精和色素等饮料成分的污染。
茶饮料、果汁和饮料、碳酸软饮料和其它饮料都会因出现耐热嗜酸菌孢子(TAB)而导致腐败。嗜热孢子可能来自于接触果汁生产过程中的农业原材料或天然提取物中的甜味剂、果汁和茶浓缩液或加味料、香精和色素等饮料成分的污染。
了解更多

丰富交叉流酒泥过滤经验为御兰堡创造可观的效益和收益

从酒泥中回收葡萄酒是葡萄酒厂所面临的难度最大的过滤需求。悬浮固体的高浓度和可变性对合适的过滤技术造成了限制,同时严格的环境规定和可持续性方案也对减少浪费量产生了压力。残渣通常使用基于助滤剂的系统过滤,例如转筒真空(RVD)或箱式压滤机。虽然这些系统通常具有从固体回收葡萄酒的良好体积回收率,但是存在可能影响葡萄酒质量的一些内在缺点。开放式设计导致可能接触氧气,使得回收的葡萄酒经常需要进一步处理。通常评级较低,用于混合酒而不是添加回原浆批次。
从酒泥中回收葡萄酒是葡萄酒厂所面临的难度最大的过滤需求。悬浮固体的高浓度和可变性对合适的过滤技术造成了限制,同时严格的环境规定和可持续性方案也对减少浪费量产生了压力。残渣通常使用基于助滤剂的系统过滤,例如转筒真空(RVD)或箱式压滤机。虽然这些系统通常具有从固体回收葡萄酒的良好体积回收率,但是存在可能影响葡萄酒质量的一些内在缺点。开放式设计导致可能接触氧气,使得回收的葡萄酒经常需要进一步处理。通常评级较低,用于混合酒而不是添加回原浆批次。
了解更多